Day 243 – Badlands and Black Hills (Part 3)

Day 243 – Badlands and Black Hills, August 16, 2011

I started the morning at Crazy Horse Memorial.  The $10 parking fee gets visitors into the
grounds and the museum, but getting closer to the incomplete monument requires
a $4 bus ride.  I’m not much of a tour
bus rider, so in this particular instance, I think I could have just snapped a
photo of the monument from the highway and kept going.

The museum is very well done and I found the plans for the
project as well as the progress of the project interesting. I was just more
interested in a close up view of what will be the largest piece of sculpture in
the world.  Perhaps I’ll come back on a
future first full weekend in June for a hike up the road…that sounded cool!

The museum displayed Indian art work and artifacts.  It also included a variety of facts on the
monument and project.  The Crazy Horse
Memorial will someday include a University and Medical Center in addition to
the museum to provide technological, scientific, and cultural opportunities for
the Native Americans.  The sculptor,
Ziolkowski, began work on the Crazy Horse Memorial in 1947.  His wife and family have continued work on the carving
since his death in 1982.

The structure will be 563 feet high and 641 feet long.  The museum has included several photos of the
progress made over the years which I found fascinating.  It also displayed a picture of the current
monument with a diagram of the final piece drawn over it to provide a good
visual.  The most impressive part about
the project is that it is funded only by visitor fees.  It does not receive any Federal or State
money.  Kudos to them!  That alone made me happy I visited, despite
not getting a close up view of Crazy Horse.

Speaking of Crazy Horse, the museum recounted the story at
Fort Robinson differently from the story I reported a few days ago from Fort
Robinson.  The museum states that Crazy
Horse was a fine warrior and never surrendered.
At the age of 35, he was bayoneted, not on the battlefield, but under a
flag of truce at Fort Robinson.

After visiting the Crazy Horse Memorial, we continued on to
Deadwood, a town full of casinos!  It is
also the town where Wild Bill Hickok, the one-time lawman and full-time
gambler, was killed by Jack McCall in 18756, less than a month after arriving.  He was shot in the back of the head while
playing poker at a local saloon.  It is
said that Hickok was clutching black pairs of aces and eights, this day known
as the dead man’s hand, when he was mortally wounded.  He is buried in the Boot Hill section in the
town’s Mount Moriah Cemetery.  Calamity Jane
(Martha Canary), who lived 53 years which was longer than most, is laid to rest
next to him.  She claimed to be Hickok’s sweetheart,
though most historians claim this was a figment of the bull train worker’s and
wild west show performer’s imagination.

Petey and I piddled around, enjoyed a burger at Deadwood Dick’s
Saloon, took in the sights and followed the Spearfish Canyon Scenic Byway toward the
South Dakota/Wyoming border.  The drive
through the Black Hills National Forest alongside a creek was just lovely.  A sign pointing to Rough Lock Falls and the
film site for Dances with Wolves caught my attention, so I turned off onto the
dirt road and bounced three miles to the location.  Sadly, I’ve never seen Dance With Wolves, but
one of the locals told me I was at the site of the last scene and that is was
very overgrown.  I walked through the
tall grass to the creek and then turned to go to the falls a mile down the
way.  The falls were just beautiful.  Petey and I took the paved trail down the creek
and across the bridge to admire the water crashing over the ledge.  Unfortunately, the bright sun interfered with
my amateur photography skills!

We spent the rest of the day traveling to Sundance, WY.  I was expecting a cute mountain town.  What a surprise.  I think it was a total of four city
blocks.  Businesses included a few gas
stations, a Best Western, Subway, Napa Auto Parts, a coffee shop, a yoga
studio, a bar, one restaurant, a bank, and of course a Harley Davidson
store.  I think there was a Harley
Davidson store in every town I passed through today!  I thought Sundance is where Robert Redford
owns a place and it is home to the Sundance Film Festival…very hard to imagine…do
I have that wrong!?!  I camped out at the
Conoco with the truckers!  I plan on
visiting the museum in the morning which has a display on the Sundance Kid.  ETB

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Day 242 – Badlands and Black Hills (Part 2)

Day 242 – Badlands and Black Hills, August 15, 2011

Another great day in South Dakota!  I have been pleasantly surprised.  I expected mostly flatland and prairie like
Nebraska and North Dakota, but the Black Hills resemble the front range in
Colorado.  We climbed through the pines
to a towering granite outcropping carved with four presidential faces…Mount
Rushmore.

The national memorial pays tribute to Washington, Jefferson,
Lincoln, and Roosevelt.  Each face is
sixty feet tall from brow to chin and the each eye is eleven feet wide.  It took 400 workers 14 years to carve the
monument with dynamite and jackhammers, and it cost just under one million
dollars to complete.

The sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, envisioned carving the
presidents to their waist.  But with his
death in 1941 and our nations involvement in World War II, his son who had
accompanied him on the project declared it finished.

To carve the monument workers, mostly unemployed miners,
climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain.  Winch men used 3/8-inch steel cables to lower
the workers over the front of the 500 foot face.    The workers referenced large plaster masks,
produced by the sculptor, that hung from cables on the mountain.

Over 450,000 tons of rock were removed from Mount
Rushmore.  Dynamite was used to remove
90% of it, but jackhammers and facing bits were used for the rest.  Air compressors at the bottom of the mountain
provided the power to operate the jackhammers.
An 1,800 foot, 3-inch pipeline followed the stairway up the mountain to
carry the air for the jackhammers.
During the winter months, a liquid gas was injected in the pipeline to
prevent freezing.

In 1936, Julian Spotts, a National Parks Service engineer
checked the system for leaks.  He
discovered a blacksmith had tapped into the line to blow air on himself while
he worked.  Spotts provided a fan!  In addition, he noticed that Rushmore
suffered a power loss every Monday morning.
It turned out that almost every woman in Keystone washed clothes on
Monday with an electric washer.  He
encouraged the Mount Rushmore Commission to invest in a gasoline-powered
auxiliary compressor….no more power problems.
In 1939, Black Hills Power and Light completed a powerline to Rushmore
which provided electricity to the project for the last two years of carving.

In addition to the presidential faces, Borglum wanted the
site to include a Hall of Records which would include a history of the United
States, busts of famous people, and a list of U.S. contributions to the world.  A seventy foot tunnel was blasted out of the
mountain behind the faces.  The
government ultimately did not approve funding for this portion so  the Hall of Records was never completed;
however, in 1998, Borglum’s daughter was part of a team that inserted 16
porcelain panels into the floor at the entrance of the tunnel.  The panels include words of the Declaration
of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.  In addition, the panels contain the
biographies of the presidents and information about how and why Mount Rushmore
was carved.

The visionaries that brought Mount Rushmore to fruition were
Doane Robinson, Peter Norbeck, William Williamson, and John Boland.  Norbeck and Williamson were South Dakota
Senators who pushed through the legislation that secured $500,000 of federal
funds to turn Robinson’s idea into reality.
Boland, a Rapid City business leader, raised additional funds when
necessary and managed day-to-day funds of the project at times.

In addition to the presidential faces, the national memorial
includes an entry way with each state’s flag and a column with an inscription
noting the date each state was admitted to the union and its associated number,
1-50.  Also, a half-mile pathway with
information signs on each president leads to closer and unique views.

I liked the Sculptor’s Studio the best where the plaster
mask and original design were on display.
If I had a complaint, it would be that my National Parks Pass didn’t
work at the National Memorial?!?
Everyone simply had to pay a private company eleven bucks to park!  And really, if it weren’t for the Sculptor’s
Studio, I think I would have been content to snap a picture from countless
opportunities provided on the highway.  I
have the profile shot, shots through tunnels and shots through trees.

In fact, these views were created intentionally by highway
engineers when they were charged to make the section of the road leading to
Custer State Park one of the most visually pleasing in the state.  In my opinion, they succeeded.  Three different, low cut, single lane tunnels
frame the president’s faces.  The road twists
and turns over wooden, corkscrew bridges like a roller coaster.  The highest point on the route, Norbeck
Overlook, provides magnificent views of the Black Hills, including 7,242-foot
Harney Peak, the loftiest mountain between the Rockies and the French Alps!

Descending from the overlook the roads leads into Custer
State Park which sells a seven day pass for $15 that allows travelers to pass
through the park to the Town of Custer (almost like a toll).  Three different state highways run
approximately 20 miles each through the enormous park.  A particular treat was to twist and wind
along Needles Highway through more narrow tunnels and past fingerlike spires
that line the steep road.

Near the summit lies idyllic Sylvan Lake which offers a
variety of activities including canoeing, swimming, fishing, and hiking.  Large granite boulders are the backdrop to
the dark blue waters.  Petey and I
enjoyed a lovely walk along a mostly groomed trail beneath the shade of pines.

In addition to the Needles Highway, the park includes an 18
mile wildlife loop.  The road leads
through grasslands and provides the best chance to view its herd of 1,500
buffalo, one of the largest in the nation.
I was sort of “buffaloed” and “prairied out” so I skipped the 18 mile
loop yet still saw buffalo three different times; two singles and a herd.  VANilla played chicken with one of the
singles.  He moved to the opposite lane.

Leaving Custer State Park, we passed through prairie land,
spotted a few pronghorn and a deer, and crossed yet another bridge before
eventually arriving at Wind Cave National Park.
As the name suggests, its main attraction is Wind Cave.  The cave may have been known to local Indians
for centuries, but it wasn’t discovered by white settlers until 1881 when
brothers Jesse and Tom Bingham were lured by a strange whistling sound to a
small hole.  The whistling sound was
created by wind, which can reach up to 70 mph blowing from the cave.  The cave either blows air out of the hole or
sucks it in depending on the outside air pressure, and thus the cave is known
as a breathing cave.

Neither the brothers nor the Indians entered the small,
natural entrance to the cave, but a sixteen year old boy by the name of Alvin
did.  He had to be one skinny, six foot
kid to fit through that passage.  He
spent four years exploring the cave and trying to find its end before he died
from pneaumonia.  To this day, based on
the wind velocity it is believed that only 5% of the cave has been
discovered.  Explorers have mapped 136
miles of passageways in 1 square mile.
The passageways go in every direction and are on top of one another.

The cave was formed by fractures, water and carbon
dioxide.  Water seeped through the
fractures and created carbonic acid when it came into touch with the carbon
dioxide.  The carbonic acid dissolves
limestone.  What is left is several
passageways with mostly box work formations.
Box work formations are made of calcite which formed between the
fractures and is not dissolved by carbonic acid.  The box work formations look like spider
webs.  95% of box work formations in the
world are found in this cave.  While I
didn’t find it to be as pretty as some of the other caves I’ve visited, I
certainly appreciated its uniqueness as well as the 53 degree temperature!

After the cave tour, I found a campsite in the park and
called it a great day!  It is here where
I met Don and Joan who were also on the cave tour and from Missouri.  They are visiting all the National Parks and
have already visited every presidential library except two.  They are headed the same direction I am, so
we may cross paths again.

Just before a storm blew through, I noticed the moon glowing
a vivid orange.  It was so pretty.  I snapped a few photos and then took cover as
lightning that had already started a fire earlier in the day flashed all around
and thunder pounded above.  ETB

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Day 241 – Badlands and Black Hills

Day 241 – Badlands and Black Hills

I don’t think I can describe the badlands any differently
than I did yesterday.  Rock formations of
clay and ash protrude from the prairie land and encompass rich fossil beds from
the time that has become to be known as the golden age of mammals.  I spent the morning walking a handful of
trails under intense sun.  The boardwalk
on The Door Trail and The Window Trail led into the rising sun.  I suspect the light would have been better
had I walked them at sunset last night…oh well, the bands of colors were still noticeable.

In addition to taking the boardwalk trails, I also took The
Notch Trail which led over the rough terrain.
The loose rock crunched under my feet as I followed the path to a log
ladder which took me to a ledge that weaved its way around the spires.  The hike provided close up views of fossilized
remains and ended overlooking the White River Valley.

After returning the way I came, I took a final walk along a
boardwalk that displayed fossil replicas of creatures that once roamed the area
including things like the Merycoidon, the Messohippus, the Hyracodon, the Hyaenodon,
the Stylemys, and the Archaeotherium.
Yeah, that’s what I said…I’ve never heard of these animals that look like
pigs, turtles, and horses…and neither has spell check!

We followed the scenic road through the Badlands and exited
the park via a dirt road to Scenic.  From
Scenic we took Highway 44 west to Rapid City where we spent the afternoon.  VANilla carried us up Skyline Drive to
Dinosaur Park for a view of the city.
Frankly, I think the fake, green painted cement monsters were more
interesting than the Rapid City skyline, but others may disagree.  The good news is a cache was hidden at this
park, so I have now checked South Dakota off the list.  Montana, Idaho, Washington, Alaska, and
Hawaii are the only states where I haven’t logged a cache.  Perhaps Hawaii and Alaska will make it on to
my travel radar next year!

While in Rapid City, we also visited the Museum of Geology
at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.  It was free to visit and very interesting. Displays
included meteorites, several types of crystals, fossils, and dinosaur
bones.  A few displays showcased the
whole dinosaur specimen!  I could have
spent much more time here, but a storm was approaching and VANilla’s windows
were open for Petey.  Not to mention, the
campus was home to a webcam cache I wanted to do before I got soaked.  Unfortunately, I needed a second person’s
help who would have been stationed at a computer with a mouse to capture my
photo.  I had hoped I could pull it off
with my iphone!  We turned in at the
local Wal-Mart and plan on visiting Mount Rushmore in the morning.  ETB

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Day 240 – Nebraska Heartland (Part 2)

Day 240 – Nebraska Heartland, August 13, 2011

Another enjoyable day in Nebraska…though most of the
interesting sites I’ve seen have been within 100 miles of each other, and I
have driven over 600 miles over a few days to see them!

We started out today at Fort Robinson where I camped last
night.  The campground is the site of one
of the most tragic events at the fort, the Cheyenne Outbreak.  Forcibly sent to Indian Territory in
Oklahoma, a band of Northern Cheyenne, led by Dull Knife, escaped and fled
across the plains of Kansas and Nebraska.
The 149 men, women, and children were finally captured by troops from
the fort in October 1878.  Told they
would have to return to the Indian Territory, they tried escaping again on
January 9, 1879, and the men opened fire on the guards with the few guns they
had hidden away as the women and children fled toward the White River.  Many of the Cheyenne fell in the battle, one
of the last of the Indian War.

Permanent buildings at the fort, originally a camp which was
established due to Indian unrest in March of 1874, went under construction in
June of 1874.  Sioux warrior Crazy Horse
surrendered 889 members of his tribe at Camp Robinson in May of 1877.  He was later killed when he tried to escape
in September of the same year.  The
buildings included barracks, a barn, officer’s quarters and the like.  Many still stand today and line a horse shoe
shaped parade ground with a manicured green lawn.  Petey and I took a stroll around the fort
area before taking a scenic drive in another part of the park to see some
bison.  We also spotted a few mules.

After driving 19 miles on a dirt road littered with muddy dips
and rock chips and yet may have been the smoothest dirt road I’ve ever been on,
VANilla delivered us to Toadstool Park. 
We visited a 1984 sod house replica of one built in the 1930’s by
Kenneth Pelren and Segard Anderson.  The
early settlers used a plow to break the sod into strips 12 inches wide and 4
inches thick.  The strips were cut into
three-foot lengths and stacked on each other like bricks to construct the
house.

While I found the house interesting, my attraction to the
park was its peculiar landscape.  Petey
and I walked the mile loop through hills of sand and clay devoid of vegetation
and severely eroded.  Harder rocks
perched atop softer material that has eroded to create toadstool
formations.  These formations were
created 34 million years ago when ash from Great Basin volcanoes in Utah and
Nevada blanketed the land.  An ancient
river carved the valley as the landscape changed to semi-arid.  The rocks and clays are also home to several
fossils that could be seen from the pathway.

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From Toadstool Park we headed back to the east past fields
of sunflowers and into the Central Time Zone, this time losing an hour, to visit
Fort Niobrara Wildlife Refuge.  We came
to enjoy a lovely waterfall that cascaded over a rock ledge and as an added
bonus spotted some more bison and drove through a prairie dog town.

Fort Niobrara Wildlife Refuge was our last stop in Nebraska
before crossing the border into South Dakota, a state I have never visited
beyond driving through one corner on my way to North Dakota a few weeks
ago.  We crossed a two lane highway that
led us through endless hay fields.  Bails
of hay dotted the rolling green hills which were occasionally outlined with
rock formations popping from the surface until we eventually reentered the Mountain Time Zone and reached Prairie
Homestead where a house of sod and log built into an embankment in 1909 still
stands.  This is a rare exception as most
sod houses have washed away.

Just next to Prairie Homestead is Badlands National Park, a
sea of moonscape.  Ridges, spires, and
canyons of volcanic ash rich with fossil beds from the Oligocene era dominate
the landscape.  We found a campsite in
the park as the sunset over formations and later enjoyed the full moon.  The moon appeared so bright that the stars
were imperceptible.  ETB

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